Unit 1. Designing an Effective Course and Class

In this module, faculty learn how to write course learning outcomes that effectively define what students will know and be able to do at the end of a course. The module introduces a number of steps to write outcomes that are student-centered, actionable, specific, sequenced from foundational to more complex, and aligned—when appropriate—to program, department, and institutional outcomes.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply the recommended techniques to write new learning outcomes or revise their existing learning outcomes.

Advising Subject Matter Expert: Thomas Angelo, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M. C., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Anderson, L. W. (Ed.), Krathwohl, D. R. (Ed.), Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., . . . Wittrock, M. C. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives (Complete ed.). New York, NY: Longman.

Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. American Association of Higher Education Bulletin, 39(7), 3–7.

Fink, L. D. (2013). Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Harrow, A. J. (1972). A taxonomy of psychomotor domain: A guide for developing behavioral objectives. New York, NY: McKay.

Krathwohl, D. R., Bloom, B. S., & Masia, B. B. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook II: Affective domain. New York, NY: McKay.

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Twigg, C. A. (2003). Improving learning and reducing costs: New models for online learning. EDUCAUSE Review, 38(5), 28–38.

In this module, faculty learn how to design assessments that most effectively and efficiently allow students to demonstrate mastery of course outcomes. In addition, the module teaches techniques to help students prepare to meet assessment expectations.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as revising a course assessment based on the cognitive levels of applicable learning outcomes, developing an assessment blueprint, or creating a course assessment plan.

Advising Subject Matter Expert: Thomas Angelo, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. White Plains, NY: Longman.

Angelo, T. A. (1995). Improving classroom assessment to improve learning. Assessment Update, 7(6), 1–2, 13–14.

Angelo, T. A. (2012). Designing subjects for learning: Practical, research-based principles and guidelines. In L. Hunt & D. Chalmers (Eds.), University teaching in focus: A learning-centred approach (pp. 93–111). Melbourne, Australia: ACER Press.

Biggs, J. B., & Tang, C. S-k. (2007). Teaching for quality learning at university (3rd ed.). Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.

Brown, S., & Race, P. (2012). Using effective assessment to promote learning. In L. Hunt & D. Chalmers (Eds.), University teaching in focus: A learning-centred approach (pp. 74–91). Melbourne, Australia: ACER Press.

Carnegie Mellon University, Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence & Educational Innovation. (n.d.). Whys and hows of assessment. Retrieved from https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/assessment/basics/index.html

International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education. (2014). Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives and writing intended learning outcomes statements. Retrieved from http://iacbe.org/

James, R., & McInnis, C. (2001). Strategically re-positioning student assessment: A discussion paper on assessment of student learning in universities. Centre for the Study of Higher Education, The University of Melbourne. Retrieved from http://melbourne-cshe.unimelb.edu.au

Kan, C. K. (2010, August). Using test blueprint in classroom assessment: Why and how. Paper presented at the 36th International Association for Educational Assessment (IAEA) Annual Conference, Bangkok, Thailand. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/

Myers, C. B., & Myers, S. M. (2007). Assessing assessment: The effects of two exam formats on course achievement and evaluation. Innovative Higher Education, 31, 227–236.

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

O’Brien, K. (2010, October 3). The test has been canceled: Final exams are quietly vanishing from college. The Boston Globe. Retrieved from http://www.boston.com/

Popham, W. J. (2003). Test better, teach better: The instructional role of assessment. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Reiner, C. M., Bothell, T. W., Sudweeks, R. R., & Wood, B. (2002). How to prepare effective essay questions: Guidelines for university faculty. Retrieved from http://www.uwgb.edu/

Stiggins, R. J. (1997). Student-centered classroom assessment (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

Suskie, L. (2009). Assessing student learning: A common sense guide (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Twigg, C. A. (2003). Improving learning and reducing costs: New models for online learning. EDUCAUSE Review, 38(5), 28–38.

Wiggins, G. P., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design (expanded 2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

In this module, faculty learn how to select activities and assignments that are aligned to the cognitive levels of their learning outcomes, prepare for in- and out-of-class time, and design transparent assignments.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as revising a course activity or assignment based on the cognitive levels of applicable learning outcomes or using the transparent assignment template to revise an assignment.

Advising Subject Matter Experts: Mary-Ann Winkelmes, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, and Thomas Angelo, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M. C., Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. White Plains, NY: Longman.

Angelo, T. A. (2012). Designing subjects for learning: Practical, research-based principles and guidelines. In L. Hunt & D. Chalmers (Eds.), University teaching in focus: A learning-centred approach (pp. 93–111). Melbourne, Australia: ACER Press.

Biggs, J. B., & Tang, C. S-k. (2007). Teaching for quality learning at university (3rd ed.). Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.

Biggs, J. B., & Tang, C. S-k. (2011). Teaching for quality learning at university: What the student does (4th ed.). Maidenhead, England: McGraw-Hill/Society for Research into Higher Education/Open University Press.

Bok, D. C. (2006). Our underachieving colleges: A candid look at how much students learn and why they should be learning more. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Head, A., & Hostetler, K. (2015, September 2). Mary-Ann Winkelmes: Transparency in teaching and learning. Retrieved from http://projectinfolit.org/

Jones, E. A., Hoffman, S., Moore, L. M., Ratcliff, G., Tibbetts, S., Click, B. A. L., III, . . . The Pennsylvania State University. (1995). National assessment of college student learning: Identifying college graduates; essential skills in writing, speech and listening, and critical thinking (ED383255). Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Staley, C. C. (2003). 50 ways to leave your lectern: Active learning strategies to engage first-year students. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

Svinicki, M. D., & McKeachie, W. J. (2014). McKeachie’s teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers (14th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Twigg, C. A. (2003). Improving learning and reducing costs: New models for online learning. EDUCAUSE Review, 38(5), 28–38.

Walvoord, B. E., & Anderson, V. J. (2009). Effective grading: A tool for learning and assessment in college (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Wieman, C. (2016). Observation guide for active-learning classroom. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/

Wiggins, G. P., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design (expanded 2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

In this module, faculty learn how to design a syllabus that both communicates essential information and facilitates student success. The module includes a checklist and guiding questions instructors can use to identify essential items and important resources. Instructors learn how to design calendars to assist students in meeting key deliverables and build a graphic or big ideas syllabus to support students in visualizing the organization of the course.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as using a checklist and guiding questions to revise their syllabus or creating their own graphic or big ideas syllabus.

Advising Subject Matter Expert: Linda Nilson, Clemson University (retired)

Appleby, D. C. (1994). How to improve your teaching with the course syllabus. Observer, 7(3).

Barkley, E. F., Cross, K. P., & Major, C. H. (2005). Collaborative learning techniques: A handbook for college faculty. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Chapman, S. (n.d.). Getting students to read the class syllabus. Retrieved from http://teaching.colostate.edu/

Clark, C. (2014, August 26). Turn your syllabus into an infographic [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://ltlatnd.wordpress.com/

Davis, B. G. (2009). Tools for teaching (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Grunert O’Brien, J. (1997). The course syllabus: A learning-centered approach. Bolton, MA: Anker.

Grunert O’Brien, J., Millis, B. J., & Cohen, M. W. (2008). The course syllabus: A learning-centered approach (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Guertin, L. (2014, August 27). Getting students to read the syllabus with a syllabus quiz [Blog post]. Retrieved from the American Geophysical Union website: http://blogs.agu.org/

Illinois State University. (n.d.). Description of objectives of 100-level PSY courses. Retrieved from
http://psychology.illinoisstate.edu/

Kaufmann, K. (2003). Building a learner centered syllabus. Retrieved from http://www.4faculty.org/

Moryl, R., & Foy, S. (2015). A graphic is worth a thousand words: Develop a graphic syllabus for your course [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://graphicsyllabus.blogs.emmanuel.edu/

Nilson, L. B. (2007). The graphic syllabus and the outcomes map: Communicating your course. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Nilson, L. B. (in press). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Parkes, J., & Harris, M. B. (2002). The purposes of a syllabus. College Teaching, 50, 55–61.

Polk State College, Faculty Central. (n.d.). Creating a syllabus. Retrieved from http://polkfacultycentral.com/

Riviere, J. (2014). Syllabus construction. Retrieved from http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/

Rutgers University, Center for Teaching Advancement and Assessment Research. (n.d.). Syllabus design. Retrieved from https://ctaar.rutgers.edu/

Sample, M. (2011, May 31). Planning a class with backward design [Blog post]. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/

Sinor, J., & Kaplan, M. Creating your syllabus. Retrieved from http://www.crlt.umich.edu/

Twigg, C. A. (2003). Improving learning and reducing costs: New models for online learning. EDUCAUSE Review, 38(5), 28–38.

Wallace, D. F. (2014, November 10). David Foster Wallace’s mind-blowing creative nonfiction syllabus: “This does not mean an essayist’s goal is to ‘share’ or ‘express herself’ or whatever feel-good term you got taught in high school.” Retrieved from http://www.salon.com/

Wieman, C. (2014). First day of class – recommendations for instructors. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website:
http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/

Wilson, S. (2006, April 21). Classroom realities. Insider Higher Ed. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/

In this module, faculty learn how to effectively leverage each portion of a class session to positively impact student learning. The module includes techniques designed to begin class—the most critical learning time—with a powerful opening. Faculty also learn strategies to segment class sessions with student-active breaks and end by engaging students in summary activities.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply the techniques to plan a class session with an effective start, middle, and end.

Advising Subject Matter Experts: Stephen Brookfield, University of St. Thomas, Minnesota, and Elizabeth Barkley, Foothill College

Bain, K. (2004). What the best college teachers do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Fuchs, A. H. (1997). Ebbinghaus’s contributions to psychology after 1885. American Journal of Psychology, 110, 621–634.

Gazzaniga, M. S., Ivry, R. B., & Mangun, G. R. (2002). Cognitive neuroscience: The biology of the mind (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Norton.

Lang, J. M. (2008). On course: A week-by-week guide to your first semester of college teaching. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Medina, J. (2014). Brain rules: 12 principles for surviving and thriving at work, home, and school (Updated and expanded 2nd ed.). Seattle, WA: Pear Press.

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Sousa, D. A. (2011). How the brain learns (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Twigg, C. A. (2003). Improving learning and reducing costs: New models for online learning. EDUCAUSE Review, 38(5), 28–38.

Wieman, C. (2016). Observation guide for active-learning classroom. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/

Unit 2. Establishing a Productive Learning Environment

In this module, faculty learn how to plan for a successful first day, start building a community of learners, and implement active learning strategies that help students understand course expectations.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as creating an outline for the first class session, using an icebreaker, or assigning a syllabus activity.

Advising Subject Matter Expert: Linda Nilson, Clemson University (retired)

Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bain, K. (2004). What the best college teachers do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Davis, B. G. (2009). Tools for teaching (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Foster, D. A., & Hermann, A. D. (2011). Linking the first week of class to end-of-term satisfaction: Using a reciprocal interview activity to create an active and comfortable classroom. College Teaching, 59, 111–116.

Howard, J. R. (2015). Discussion in the college classroom: Getting your students engaged and participating in person and online. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Lang, J. M. (2008). On course: A week-by-week guide to your first semester of college teaching. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Laws, E. L., Apperson, J. M., Buchert, S., & Bregman, N. J. (2010). Student evaluations of instruction: When are enduring first impressions formed? North American Journal of Psychology, 12, 81–92.

McKeachie, W. J., & Hofer, B. K. (2002). McKeachie’s teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Wieman, C. (2014). First day of class – recommendations for instructors. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/

Wilson, J. H., & Wilson, S. B. (2007). The first day of class affects student motivation: An experimental study. Teaching of Psychology, 34, 226–230.

In this module, faculty learn how to work with students to set expectations for a civil learning environment. In addition, the module helps faculty address low-, mid-, and high-level disruptions to the learning environment.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as writing policies regarding classroom civility, writing classroom norms with students, or using appropriate methods to respond to student behaviors.

Advising Subject Matter Experts: Barbara Frey, University of Pittsburgh; Kristen Knepp, Cranberry Psychological Center; and Linda Nilson, Clemson University (retired)

Alberts, H. C., Hazen, H. D., & Theobald, R. B. (2010). Classroom incivilities: The challenge of interactions between college students and instructors in the US. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 34, 439–462.

Amada, G. (1992). Coping with the disruptive college student: A practical model. Journal of American College Health, 40, 203–215.

American Psychological Association. (2011). The state of mental health on college campuses:
A growing crisis. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/

Appleby, D. (1990). Faculty and student perceptions of irritating behaviors in the college classroom. Journal of Staff, Program, and Organization Development, 8, 41–46.

Bayer, A. E. (2004). Promulgating statements of student rights and responsibilities. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2004(99), 77–87.

Black, L. J., Wygonik, M. L., & Frey, B. A. (2011). Faculty-preferred strategies to promote a positive classroom environment. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 22(2), 109–134.

Boice, R. (1998). Classroom incivilities. In K. A. Feldman & M. B. Paulson (Eds.), Teaching and learning in the college classroom (2nd ed., pp. 347–369). Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster.

Braxton, J. M., Bayer, A. E., and Noseworthy, J. A. (2004). The influence of teaching norm violations on the welfare of students as clients of college teaching. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2004(99), 41–46.

Buttner, E. H. (2004). How do we “dis” students?: A model of (dis)respectful business instructor behavior. Journal of Management Education, 28, 319–334.

Canter, L. (2009). Assertive discipline: Positive behavior management for today’s classroom (4th ed.). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

Carbone, E. (1999). Students behaving badly in large classes. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 77, 35–43.

Carnegie Mellon University, Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence & Educational Innovation. (n.d.). Address problematic student behavior. Retrieved from https://www.cmu.edu/

Davis. B. G. (2009). Tools for teaching (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Deering, C. D. (2011). Managing disruptive behaviour in the classroom. College Quarterly, 14(3).

DiClementi, J. D., & Handelsman, M. M. (2005). Empowering students: Class-generated course rules. Teaching of Psychology, 32, 18–21.

Knepp, K. A. F. (2012). Understanding student and faculty incivility in higher education. The Journal of Effective Teaching, 12(1), 32–45.

Kyle, P. B., & Rogien, L. R. (2004). Opportunities and options in classroom management. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Nilson, L. B. (in press). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Nilson, L. B., & Jackson, N. S. (2004). Combating classroom misconduct (incivility) with bills of rights. Proceedings of the 4th Conference of the International Consortium for Educational Development. Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Paff, L. (2015, September 28). Why policies fail to promote better learning decisions. Faculty Focus. Retrieved from http://www.facultyfocus.com/

Sorcinelli, M. D. (1994). Dealing with troublesome behaviors in the classroom. In K. W. Prichard & R. M. Sawyer (Eds.), Handbook of college teaching: Theory and applications (pp. 365–373). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Wilson, G. L. (2005). Groups in context: Leadership and participation in small groups (7th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

In this module, faculty learn how to create a classroom environment that supports learning, make their course content relevant, and communicate their belief in students’ ability to meet course expectations.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as using seating charts, talking with students before class, or using data from student surveys to adjust instruction.

Advising Subject Matter Expert: Linda Nilson, Clemson University (retired)

Ainley, M., Hidi, S., & Berndorff, D. (2002). Interest, learning, and the psychological processes that mediate their relationship. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 545–561.

Allen, D., & Tanner, K. (2005). Infusing active learning into the large-enrollment biology class: Seven strategies, from the simple to complex. Cell Biology Education, 4, 262–268.

Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M. C., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Ames, C. A. (1990). Motivation: What teachers need to know. The Teachers College Record, 91, 409–421.

Battistich, V., Solomon, D., Kim, D.-I., Watson, M., & Schaps, E. (1995). Schools as communities, poverty levels of student populations, and students’ attitudes, motives, and performance: A multilevel analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 32, 627–658.

Brookfield, S. D. (2015). The skillful teacher: On technique, trust, and responsiveness in the classroom (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Carnegie Mellon University, Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence & Educational Innovation. (n.d.). The anonymity of the class reduces civility. Retrieved from https://www.cmu.edu/

Church, M. A., Elliot, A. J., & Gable, S. L. (2001). Perceptions of classroom environment, achievement goals, and achievement outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 43–54.

Cole, D. G., Sugioka, H. L., & Yamagata-Lynch, L. C. (1999). Supportive classroom environments for creativity in higher education. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 33, 277–293.

Cordova, D. I., & Lepper, M. R. (1996). Intrinsic motivation and the process of learning: Beneficial effects of contextualization, personalization, and choice. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 715–730.

Cornell University, Center for Teaching Excellence. (n.d.). Connecting with your students.
Retrieved from http://www.cte.cornell.edu/

Davis, S. E. (2007). Effects of motivation, preferred learning styles, and perceptions of classroom climate on achievement in ninth and tenth grade math students (Doctoral dissertation). University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Retrieved from http://ufdc.ufl.edu/

Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256–273.

Freeman, T. M., Anderman, L. H., & Jensen, J. M. (2007). Sense of belonging in college freshmen at the classroom and campus levels. The Journal of Experimental Education, 75, 203–220.

Frisby, B. N., & Martin, M. M. (2010). Instructor–student and student–student rapport in the classroom. Communication Education, 59, 146–164.

Furrer, C., & Skinner, E. (2003). Sense of relatedness as a factor in children’s academic engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 148–162.

Hartnett, M., St. George, A., & Dron, J. (2011). Examining motivation in online distance learning environments: Complex, multifaceted and situation-dependent. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 12(6), 20–38.

Kuh, G. D., Kinzie, J., Schuh, J. H., & Whitt, E. J. (2011). Student success in college: Creating conditions that matter. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Legg, A. M., & Wilson, J. H. (2009). E-mail from professor enhances student motivation and attitudes. Teaching of Psychology, 36, 205–211.

Lichtenstein, M. (2005). The importance of classroom environments in the assessment of learning community outcomes. Journal of College Student Development, 46, 341–356.

Lowman, J. (1984). Mastering the techniques of teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Meyers, S. A. (2009). Do your students care whether you care about them? College Teaching, 57, 205–210.

Moriarty, B., Douglas, G., Punch, K., & Hattie, J. (1995). The importance of self-efficacy as a mediating variable between learning environments and achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 65, 73–84.

Mucherah, W. (2014). Exploring the relationship between classroom climate, reading motivation, and achievement: A look into 7th grade classrooms. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 8, 93–110.

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Pascarella, E. T. (1980). Student–faculty informal contact and college outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 50, 545–595.

Phelan, P., Davidson, A. L., & Cao, H. T. (1992). Speaking up: Students’ perspectives on school.
The Phi Delta Kappan, 73, 695–696, 698–704.

Pizzolato, J. E. (2006). Achieving college student possible selves: Navigating the space between commitment and achievement of long-term identity goals. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12, 57–69.

Powell, J. D., & Lines, J. I. (2010). Make learning personal: Recommendations for classroom practice. About Campus, 15(2), 20–25.

Seifert, T. (2004). Understanding student motivation. Educational Research, 46, 137–149.

Shepherd, M. M., Briggs, R. O., Reinig, B. A., Yen, J., & Nunamaker, J. F., Jr. (1995/1996). Invoking social comparison to improve electronic brainstorming: Beyond anonymity. Journal of Management Information Systems, 12(3), 155–170.

Sousa, D. A. (2011). How the brain learns (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Sutton, R. E., & Wheatley, K. F. (2003). Teachers’ emotions and teaching: A review of the literature and directions for future research. Educational Psychology Review, 15, 327–358.

Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Trees, A. R., & Jackson, M. H. (2007). The learning environment in clicker classrooms: Student processes of learning and involvement in large university-level courses using student response systems. Learning, Media and Technology, 32, 21–40.

Umbach P. D., & Wawrzynski, M. R. (2005). Faculty do matter: The role of college faculty in student learning and engagement. Research in Higher Education, 46, 153–184.

Urdan, T., & Schoenfelder, E. (2006). Classroom effects on student motivation: Goal structures, social relationships, and competence beliefs. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 331–349.

Wentzel, K. R. (1991). Relations between social competence and academic achievement in early adolescence. Child Development, 62, 1066–1078.

Wilson, J. H., & Wilson, S. B. (2007). The first day of class affects student motivation: An experimental study. Teaching of Psychology, 34, 226–230.

Witt, P. L., Wheeless, L. R., & Allen, M. (2004). A meta-analytical review of the relationship between teacher immediacy and student learning. Communication Monographs, 71, 184–207.

Woodside, B. M., Wong, E. H., & Weist, D. J. (1999). The effect of student–faculty interaction on college students’ academic achievement and self-concept. Education, 119, 730–733.

In this module, faculty learn how to motivate students by developing students’ appreciation for their discipline. In addition, faculty learn to support student success through setting goals, incentivizing assignment completion, and using a variety of assessment and instructional strategies to meet the needs and showcase the strengths of different types of learners.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as discussing their interest in the discipline, establishing incentives for assignment completion, or teaching students the DAPPS formula for setting goals.

Advising Subject Matter Expert: Linda Nilson, Clemson University (retired)

Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M. C., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Arsham. H. (n.d.). Student to student: Your fellow students’ opinion and advice. Retrieved from http://home.ubalt.edu/

Carnegie Mellon University, Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence & Educational Innovation. (n.d.). Explore potential strategies. Retrieved from https://www.cmu.edu/

Davis, B. G. (2009). Tools for teaching (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Downing, S. (2011). On course: Strategies for creating success in college and in life (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Ellis, D. B. (2000). Becoming a master student: Tools, techniques, hints, ideas, illustrations, examples, methods, procedures, processes, skills, resources, and suggestions for success. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Ellis, D. B. (2006). Becoming a master student (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Fleming, N. (2003). Establishing rapport: Personal interaction and learning (Idea Paper #39). Retrieved from http://ideaedu.org/

Fox, J. (2011, May 24). “Why are we doing this?” Establishing relevance to enhance student learning. Faculty Focus. Retrieved from http://www.facultyfocus.com/

Howey, S. C. (1999). The relationship between motivation and academic success of community college freshmen orientation students (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED465391)

Lumina Foundation. (n.d.). Community partnership for attainment. Lumina Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.luminafoundation.org/

Merisotis, J. (2015, October 15). Want to be happier and healthier? Then go to college [Blog post]. Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Nilson, L. B. (2013). Creating self-regulated learners: Strategies to strengthen students’ self-awareness and learning skills. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Nist-Olejnik, S., & Holschuh, J. P. (2007). College rules! How to study, survive, and succeed in college (2nd ed.). Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press.

Trostel, P. (n.d.). It’s not just the money: The benefits of college education to individuals and to society. Retrieved from https://www.luminafoundation.org/

Wieman, C. (2010). Basic instructor habits to keep students engaged. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/

Wieman, C. (2013). Motivating learning. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/

Wieman, C. (2014). First day of class – recommendations for instructors. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/

In this module, faculty learn how to assess students’ levels of readiness in order to inform instruction and encourage the use of campus resources for academic support. The module also teaches faculty how to clearly communicate their expectations and use grading practices that fully support student success.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as using ungraded assignments early in the semester, inviting a panel of past students to share advice with their current students, using a performance prognosis inventory, or sharing academic support resources.

Advising Subject Matter Experts: José Bowen, Goucher College, and Saundra McGuire, Louisiana State University

Brookfield, S. D. (2015). The skillful teacher: On technique, trust, and responsiveness in the classroom (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Gabriel, K. F. (2008). Teaching unprepared students: Strategies for promoting success and retention in higher education. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

McGuire, S. Y., & McGuire, S. (2015). Teach students how to learn: Strategies you can incorporate into any course to improve student metacognition, study skills, and motivation. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Twigg, C. A. (2003). Improving learning and reducing costs: New models for online learning. EDUCAUSE Review, 38(5), 28–38.

Twigg, C. A. (2015, November–December). Improving learning and reducing costs: Fifteen years of course description. Change. Retrieved from http://www.changemag.org/

Walpole, M. (2007). Economically and educationally challenged students in higher education: Access to outcomes (ASHE Higher Education Report, Vol. 33, No. 3). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

In this module, faculty learn how to build intrinsic motivation by offering choice, providing targeted feedback and revision opportunities, and connecting course learning to career goals. It also introduces the concept and motivational impact of a growth mindset.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as providing students with a choice in the type of project they will complete, offering students an opportunity to use feedback to revise an assignment, or showing students how course content is connected to their career goals.

Advising Subject Matter Expert: Jane Muhich, Seattle Central College

Braxton, J. M. (Ed.). (2008). The role of the classroom in college student persistence. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Cornell University, Center for Teaching Excellence. (n.d.). Using rubrics. http://www.cte.cornell.edu/

Crissman Ishler, J. L., & Upcraft, M. L. (2005). The keys to first-year student persistence. In M. L. Upcraft, J. N. Gardner, & B. O. Barefoot (Eds.), Challenging and supporting the first-year student: A handbook for improving the first year of college (pp. 27–46). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. How we can learn to fulfill our potential. New York, NY: Random House.

Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77, 81–112.

Pink, D. H. (2009). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York, NY: Riverhead Books.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2015). Promoting self-determined school engagement: Motivation, learning, and well-being. In K. R. Wentzel & D. Miele (Eds.), Handbook on motivation at school (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Thompson, J. G. (n.d.). 28 ways to build persistent & confident students. Retrieved from
http://teaching.monster.com/

Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition (2nd ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

University of Michigan, Center for Research on Learning & Teaching [CRLTeach]. (2014, February 26). Eric Mazur, Harvard University. Peer instruction [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/

Wieman, C. (2010). Basic instructor habits to keep students engaged. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/

Wieman, C. (2013). Motivating learning. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/

In this module, faculty examine how their own experiences have shaped their perspectives and the importance of valuing different viewpoints. In addition, faculty learn about the power of explicit and implicit messages (microaggressions, stereotype threat) and how to create an inclusive classroom environment and curriculum that are representative of diverse student perspectives.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as assessing and revising their curriculum to represent a diverse society or writing ground rules for productive discourse in the classroom.

Advising Subject Matter Experts: Jerome D. Williams, Rutgers University–Newark, and Stephen Brookfield, University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

Brookfield, S. D. (2015). The skillful teacher: On technique, trust, and responsiveness in the classroom (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Brookfield, S. D. (n.d.). Class participation grading rubric. Retrieved from http://stephenbrookfield.com/

Brookfield, S. D. (n.d.). Discussion as a way of teaching: Workshop resource packet. Retrieved from http://www.stephenbrookfield.com/

Holoien, D. S., & Shelton, J. N. (2012). You deplete me: The cognitive costs of colorblindness on ethnic minorities. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 562–565.

Kim, Y. M. (2011). Minorities in higher education: Twenty-fourth status report 2011 supplement. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

Mayhew, M. J., Grunwald, H. E., & Dey, E. L. (2011). Curriculum matters: Creating a positive climate for diversity from the student perspective. In S. R. Harper & S. Hurtado (Eds.), Racial and ethnic diversity in higher education (3rd ed., pp. 515–529). Boston, MA: Pearson Learning Solutions.

Nelson Laird, T. F. (2014). Reconsidering the inclusion of diversity in the curriculum. Diversity and Democracy, 17(4), 12–14.

Solórzano, D., Ceja, M., & Yosso, T. (2011). Critical race theory, racial microaggressions, and campus racial climate: The experiences of African American college students. In S. R. Harper & S. Hurtado (Eds.), Racial and ethnic diversity in higher education (3rd ed., pp. 438–456). Boston, MA: Pearson Learning Solutions.

Steele, C. M. (1999, August). Thin ice: Stereotype threat and black college students. The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/

Steele, C. M. (2013, April 18). Stereotype threat: How it affects us and what we can do about it [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.cornell.edu/

Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797–811.

Stroessner, S., & Good, C. (n.d.). What can be done to reduce stereotype threat? Retrieved from http://www.reducingstereotypethreat.org/

Sue, D. W. (2010, October 5). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Is subtle bias harmless? [Blog post]. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/

Tapia, R., & Johnson, C. (2011). Minority students in science and math: What universities still do not understand about race in America. In S. R. Harper & S. Hurtado (Eds.), Racial and ethnic diversity in higher education (3rd ed., pp. 484–491). Boston, MA: Pearson Learning Solutions.

Tatum, B. D. (2011). Talking about race, learning about racism: The application of racial identity development theory in the classroom. In S. R. Harper & S. Hurtado (Eds.), Racial and ethnic diversity in higher education (3rd ed., pp. 438–456). Boston, MA: Pearson Learning Solutions.

University of Michigan, Center for Research on Learning & Teaching [CRLTeach]. (2014, February 26). Eric Mazur, Harvard University. Peer instruction [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2015). Fast facts: Students with disabilities. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/

Warren, L. (n.d). Managing hot moments in the classroom. Retrieved from http://www.isites.harvard.edu/

Unit 3. Using Active Learning Techniques

In this module, faculty learn to implement the essential components of effective active learning, including providing a rationale for the activity, promoting group interdependence, holding group members accountable, and collecting student feedback to identify strengths and areas for improving the activity. The module helps instructors implement three active learning techniques (Think-Pair-Share, Jigsaw, and Analytic Teams) depending on the learning objectives they have set for their class session.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as holding students accountable for their participation in group activities or implementing an appropriate active learning activity.

Advising Subject Matter Expert: Elizabeth Barkley, Foothill College

Barkley, E. F., Cross, K. P., & Major, C. H. (2014). Collaborative learning techniques: A handbook for college faculty (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Davidson, N., & Major, C. H. (2014). Boundary crossings: Cooperative learning, collaborative learning, and problem-based learning. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 25(3/4), 7–55.

Davis, B. G. (2009). Tools for teaching (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2005). New developments in social interdependence theory. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 131, 285–358.

Lambert, C. (2012, March–April). Twilight of the lecture: The trend toward “active learning” may overthrow the style of teaching that has ruled universities for 600 years. Harvard Magazine. Retrieved from http://harvardmagazine.com/

McWilliam, E. L. (2009). Teaching for creativity: From sage to guide to meddler. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 29, 281–293.

Twigg, C. A. (2015, November–December). Improving learning and reducing costs: Fifteen years of course description. Change. Retrieved from http://www.changemag.org/

Wieman, C. (2010). Basic instructor habits to keep students engaged. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/

In this module, faculty learn how to effectively plan and facilitate active learning in a large class. The module teaches faculty to use an active learning cycle to pique student interest, build foundational knowledge, and then require students to apply new concepts. In addition, the module includes techniques for using formative assessment and leveraging technology to inform and improve learning.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as using cues to keep students on task, designing lessons according to an active learning cycle, or closing with an activity to hold students accountable.

Advising Subject Matter Experts: John Pollard, University of Arizona, and Edward Prather, University of Arizona

Allen, D., & Tanner, K. (2005). Infusing active learning into the large-enrollment biology class: Seven strategies, from the simple to complex. Cell Biology Education, 4, 262–268.

Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Barrows, H. S., & Tamblyn, R. M. (1980). Problem-based learning: An approach to medical education. New York, NY: Springer.

Brookfield, S. D., & Preskill, S. (2005). Discussion as a way of teaching: Tools and techniques for democratic classrooms (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Cleveland, L. G. (2002). That’s not a large class; It’s a small town: How do I manage? In C. A. Stanley & M. E. Porter (Eds.), Engaging large classes: Strategies and techniques for college faculty (pp. 16–27). Bolton, MA: Anker.

Columbia University. (n.d.). Active learning. Retrieved from http://www.columbia.edu/

Davis, B. G. (2009). Tools for teaching (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Deslauriers, L., Schelew, E., & Wieman, C. (2011). Improved learning in a large-enrollment physics class. Science, 332, 862–864.

Doyle, T. (2008). Helping students learn in a learner-centered environment: A guide to facilitating learning in higher education. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Felder, R. M. (1997). Beating the numbers game: Effective teaching in large classes. Proceedings of the 1997 ASEE Annual Conference, Milwaukee, WI. Retrieved from: http://www4.ncsu.edu/

Hake, R. R. (1998). Interactive-engagement vs. traditional methods: A six-thousand-student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses. American Journal of Physics, 66, 64.

Huba, M. E., & Freed, J. E. (2000). Learner-centered assessment on college campuses: Shifting the focus from teaching to learning. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Knight, J. K., & Wood, W. B. (2005). Teaching more by lecturing less. Cell Biology Education, 4, 298–310.

Lambert, C. (2012, March–April). Twilight of the lecture: The trend toward “active learning” may overthrow the style of teaching that has ruled universities for 600 years. Harvard Magazine. Retrieved from http://harvardmagazine.com/

McKeachie, W. J. (1999). McKeachie’s teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Medina, J. (2014). Brain rules: 12 principles for surviving and thriving at work, home, and school (Updated and expanded 2nd ed.). Seattle, WA: Pear Press.

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Novicki, A. (2010, April 1). Promoting learning in large enrollment courses [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://cit.duke.edu/

Pollard, J. (2014, June 9). Teaching students how to think. University of Arizona News. Retrieved from http://uanews.org/

PolyUFB. (2013, February 20). Dr. Allison Lloyd – Active learning in large class [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/

Preszler, R. W., Dawe, A., Shuster, C. B., & Shuster, M. (2007). Assessment of the effects of student response systems on student learning and attitudes over a broad range of biology courses. CBE Life Sciences Education, 6, 29–41.

Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of Engineering Education, 93, 223–231.

Ruhl, K. L., Hughes, C. A., & Schloss, P. J. (1987). Using the pause procedure to enhance lecture recall. Teacher Education and Special Education, 10, 14–18.

Silberman, M. (1996). Active learning: 101 strategies to teach any subject. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Sutherland, T. E., & Bonwell, C. C. (Eds.). (1996). Using active learning in college classes: A range of options for faculty. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Teaching and Educational Development Institute. (2002). A survey of large class teaching around Australia. Retrieved from http://www.cadad.edu.au/

Topping, K. J., & Ehly, S. W. (1998). Peer-assisted learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.

Twigg, C. A. (2003). Improving learning and reducing costs: New models for online learning. EDUCAUSE Review, 38(5), 28–38.

Twigg, C. A. (2015, November–December). Improving learning and reducing costs: Fifteen years of course description. Change. Retrieved from http://www.changemag.org/

University of Arizona, Office of Instruction and Assessment. (n.d.). The learning cycle [Video file]. Retrieved from http://streaming.oia.arizona.edu/

University of Michigan, Center for Research on Learning & Teaching [CRLTeach]. (2014, February 26). Eric Mazur, Harvard University. Peer instruction [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/

VanGundy, A. B. (2005). 101 activities for teaching creativity and problem solving. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

Wieman, C. (2010). Basic instructor habits to keep students engaged. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/

Wieman, C. (2016). Observation guide for active-learning classroom. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/

In this module, faculty learn how to determine if the lecture approach is aligned to their learning objectives, develop well-organized and effectively paced lectures, keep students engaged, and seek student feedback.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as opening with an interesting quote or question to pique students’ interest, providing skeletal notes, or chunking information into manageable segments.

Advising Subject Matter Expert: Stephen Brookfield, University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

Bligh, D. A. (2000). What’s the use of lectures? San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Brookfield, S. D. (2015). The skillful teacher: On technique, trust, and responsiveness in the classroom (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Davis, B. G. (1993). Tools for teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Lambert, C. (2012, March–April). Twilight of the lecture: The trend toward “active learning” may overthrow the style of teaching that has ruled universities for 600 years. Harvard Magazine. Retrieved from http://harvardmagazine.com/

Medina, J. (2014). Brain rules: 12 principles for surviving and thriving at work, home, and school (Updated and expanded 2nd ed.). Seattle, WA: Pear Press.

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Tollefson, S. (n.d). Gone in sixty seconds: The one-minute paper as a tool for evaluation—of both instructor and students [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://writingacross.berkeley.edu/

Twigg, C. A. (2015, November–December). Improving learning and reducing costs: Fifteen years of course description. Change. Retrieved from http://www.changemag.org/

University of Michigan, Center for Research on Learning & Teaching [CRLTeach]. (2014, February 26). Eric Mazur, Harvard University. Peer instruction [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/

Wieman, C. (2010). Basic instructor habits to keep students engaged. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/

In this module, faculty learn how to write well-sequenced, thought-provoking questions to increase student engagement in class discussions. The module helps instructors effectively set expectations for participation, explain the role of discussion for positively impacting learning, and develop an effective grading policy. Faculty will also learn how to leverage class discussions so students come to class prepared and having done the assigned reading or homework.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as sequencing questions to progress toward higher order thinking, developing a grading policy for participation, or assigning students a self-grading activity.

Advising Subject Matter Expert: Jay Howard, Butler University

Auster, C. J., & MacRone, M. (1994). The classroom as a negotiated social setting: An empirical study of the effects of faculty members’ behavior on students’ participation. Teaching Sociology, 22, 289–300.

Barkley, E. F., Major, C. H., & Cross, K. P. (2014). Collaborative learning techniques: A handbook for college faculty (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Barton, J., Heilker, P., & Rutkowski, D. (n.d.). Fostering effective classroom discussions. Retrieved from http://www.mhhe.com/

Baxter, J., & Ter Bush, R. (2010). Discussions. Retrieved from http://resources.depaul.edu/

Bonwell, C. C., & Eison, J. A. (1991). Active learning: Creating excitement in the classroom. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED340272)

Brookfield, S. D. (2006). The skillful teacher: On technique, trust, and responsiveness in the classroom (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Brookfield, S. D., & Preskill, S. (2005). Discussion as a way of teaching: Tools and techniques for democratic classrooms (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Cashin, W. E. (2011). Effective classroom discussions (Idea Paper #49). Retrieved from http://ideaedu.org/

Cerbin, B. (2010, April 23). Collaborative learning techniques workshop handouts. Center for Advancing Teaching & Learning, UW-La Crosse. Retrieved from http://www.uwlax.edu/

Davis, B. G. (2009). Tools for teaching (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Doyle, T. (2008). Helping students learn in a learner-centered environment: A guide to facilitating learning in higher education. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Elkenberry, K. (2007). Brainstorming strategies: Seven questions that spur better solutions. Retrieved from http://www.sideroad.com/

Howard, J. R. (2015). Discussion in the college classroom: Getting your students engaged and participating in person and online. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Ito, C. (2014). Techniques for active learning. Retrieved from http://education.wm.edu/

Karp, D. A., & Yoels, W. C. (1976). The college classroom: Some observations on the meanings of student participation. Sociology and Social Research, 60, 421–439.

Knight, J. (2013). High-impact instruction: A framework for great teaching. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Novak, G. M., Patterson, E. T., Gavrin, A. D., & Christian, W. (1999). Just-in-Time teaching: Blending active learning with web technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Rotenberg, R. L. (2010). The art & craft of college teaching: A guide for new professors & graduate students (2nd ed.). Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.

Sidelinger, R. (2010). College student involvement: An examination of student characteristics and perceived instructor communication behaviors in the classroom. Communication Studies, 61, 87–103.

Wieman, C. (2010). Basic instructor habits to keep students engaged. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca//a>

In this module, faculty learn activities they can use to launch productive discussions, including Hatful of Quotes, Sentence Completions, and Fishbowl techniques. The module also helps instructors balance student participation using wait time, prompts to manage dominant talkers, and techniques to encourage quieter students while also limiting their own talking.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as using a Fishbowl activity, wait time, or prompting.

Advising Subject Matter Expert: Jay Howard, Butler University

Alexander, M. E., Commander, N., Greenberg, D., & Ward, T. (2010). Using the four-questions technique to enhance critical thinking in online discussions. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6, 409–415.

Auster, C. J., & MacRone, M. (1994). The classroom as a negotiated social setting: An empirical study of the effects of faculty members’ behavior on students’ participation. Teaching Sociology, 22, 289–300.

Barkley, E. F., Major, C. H., & Cross, K. P. (2014). Collaborative learning techniques: A handbook for college faculty (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Barton, J., Heilker, P., & Rutkowski, D. (n.d.). Fostering effective classroom discussions. Retrieved from http://www.mhhe.com/

Baxter, J., & Ter Bush, R. (2010). Discussions. Retrieved from http://resources.depaul.edu/

Bonwell, C. C., & Eison, J. A. (1991). Active learning: Creating excitement in the classroom. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED340272)

Brookfield, S. D., & Preskill, S. (2005). Discussion as a way of teaching: Tools and techniques for democratic classrooms (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Cashin, W. E. (2011). Effective classroom discussions (Idea Paper #49). Retrieved from http://ideaedu.org/

Cerbin, B. (2010, April 23). Collaborative learning techniques workshop handouts. Center for Advancing Teaching & Learning, UW-La Crosse. Retrieved from http://www.uwlax.edu/

Davis, B. G. (2009). Tools for teaching (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Doyle, T. (2008). Helping students learn in a learner-centered environment: A guide to facilitating learning in higher education. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Elkenberry, K. (2007). Brainstorming strategies: Seven questions that spur better solutions. Retrieved from http://www.sideroad.com/

Howard, J. R. (2015). Discussion in the college classroom: Getting your students engaged and participating in person and online. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Ito, C. (2014). Techniques for active learning. Retrieved from http://education.wm.edu/

Knight, J. (2013). High-impact instruction: A framework for great teaching. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Rotenberg, R. L. (2010). The art & craft of college teaching: A guide for new professors & graduate students (2nd ed.). Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.

Sidelinger, R. (2010). College student involvement: An examination of student characteristics and perceived instructor communication behaviors in the classroom. Communication Studies, 61, 87–103.

Twigg, C. A. (2015, November–December). Improving learning and reducing costs: Fifteen years of course description. Change. Retrieved from http://www.changemag.org/

Wieman, C. (2010). Basic instructor habits to keep students engaged. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/

Wieman, C. (2016). Observation guide for active-learning classroom. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/

In this module, faculty learn how to design assignments that incorporate civic knowledge, skills, and values; as well as teach students to strategically use research to solve local problems, share their findings with the community, and develop their civic values.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must create a civic learning assignment for one of their courses.

Advising Subject Matter Experts: Kristin Webster, California State University, Los Angeles, and Michael Willard, California State University, Los Angeles

Association of American Colleges and Universities. (n.d.). Problem solving VALUE rubric. Retrieved from http://www.aacu.org/

Astin, A. W., Astin, H. S., & Lindholm, J. A. (2011). Cultivating the spirit: How college can enhance students’ inner lives. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Boyte, H. C. (2015). Democracy’s education: Public work, citizenship, & the future of colleges and universities. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

Brammer, L., Dumlao, R., Falk, A., Hollander, E., Knutson, E., Poehnert, J., . . . Werner, V. (2012). Core competencies in civic engagement. Retrieved from http://scholarworks.merrimack.edu/

Colby, A., Ehrlich, T., Beaumont, E., & Stephens, J. (2010). Educating citizens: Preparing America’s undergraduates for lives of moral and civic responsibility. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Dewey, J. (1933). Experience and education. New York, NY: Macmillan.

Dostilio, L. D., Conti, N., Kronk, R., Weideman, Y. L., Woodley, S. K., & Trun, N. (2013). Civic learning through public scholarship: Coherence among diverse disciplines. Journal of Public Scholarship in Higher Education, 3, 43–65.

Finley, A. (2012, January). A brief review of the evidence on civic learning in higher education. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association of American Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://www.aacu.org/

Huber, B. J. (2010). Does participation in multiple high impact practices affect student success at Cal State Northridge?: Some preliminary insights. California State University, Northridge, Office of Institutional Research. Retrieved from http://www.calstate.edu/

Jansen, T., Chioncel, N., & Dekkers, H. (2006). Social cohesion and integration: Learning active citizenship. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 27, 189–205.

Kadesch, R. R. (1996). Problem solving across the disciplines. New York, NY: Prentice Hall.

Kahne, J., Middaugh, E., & Allen, D. (2013). Youth, new media, and the rise of participatory politics (Working Papers #1). Retrieved from http://ypp.dmlcentral.net/

Kinzie, J., & Stevens, M. (2013, June). Service-learning and beyond: Civic learning impact, implications, and more [PowerPoint slides]. Presentation from the NASPA Civic Learning & Democratic Engagement Meeting, Philadelphia, PA. Retrieved from http://cpr.indiana.edu/

Kirlin, M. (2003). The role of civic skills in fostering civic engagement (CIRCLE Working Paper 06). Retrieved from http://www.civicyouth.org/

Kolb, D. A. (2014). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson FT Press.

Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

National Survey of Student Engagement. (2012). Promoting student learning and institutional improvement: Lessons from NSSE at 13. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research. Retrieved from http://nsse.iub.edu/

Rubin, B. C. (2011). Making citizens: Transforming civic learning for diverse social studies classrooms. New York, NY: Routledge.

Yeager, D. S., Henderson, M. D., Paunesku, D., Walton, G. M., D’Mello, S., Spitzer, B. J., & Duckworth, A. L. (2014). Boring but important: A self-transcendent purpose for learning fosters academic self-regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107, 559–580.

Unit 4. Promoting Higher Order Thinking

In this module, faculty learn how to provide a set of high-quality directions for complex tasks and the essential techniques for giving clear explanations of challenging content. In addition, the module includes techniques for obtaining student feedback on the clarity of directions and explanations designed to inform instructional adjustments when needed.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as providing written directions, sharing multiple examples, or assigning a class-reaction survey.

Advising Subject Matter Expert: Linda Nilson, Clemson University (retired)

Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M. C., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Berrett, D. (2015, September 21). The unwritten rules of college. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/

BrckaLorenz, A., Cole, E., Kinzie, J., & Ribera, A. (2011, April). Examining effective faculty practice: Teaching clarity and student engagement. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. Retrieved from http://cpr.indiana.edu/

Brookfield, S. D. (2015). The skillful teacher: On technique, trust, and responsiveness in the classroom (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Chesebro, J. L. (2003). Effects of teacher clarity and nonverbal immediacy on student learning, receiver apprehension, and affect. Communication Education, 52, 135–147.

Chesebro, J. L., & McCroskey, J. C. (2001). The relationship of teacher clarity and immediacy with student state receiver apprehension, affect, and cognitive learning. Communication Education, 50, 59–68.

Cooper, T. (2007–2008). Collaboration or plagiarism? Explaining collaborative-based assignments clearly. Essays on Teaching Excellence: Toward the Best in the Academy, 17(1). Retrieved from http://podnetwork.org/

Davis, B. G. (2009). Tools for teaching (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Erickson, B. L., Peters, C. B., & Weltner Strommer, D. (2006). Teaching first-year college students (Revised and expanded ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Filene, P. G. (2005). The joy of teaching: A practical guide for new college instructors. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Gliessman, D. H. (1987). Changing complex teaching skills. Journal of Education for Teaching, 13, 267–275.

Lang, J. M. (2008). On course: A week-by-week guide to your first semester of college teaching. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Metcalf, K. K., & Cruickshank, D. R. (1991). Can teachers be trained to make clear presentations? Journal of Educational Research, 85, 107–116.

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Smith, L. R. (1982). A review of two low-inference teacher behaviors related to performance of college students. Review of Higher Education, 5, 159–167.

Sorcinelli, M. D. (2005). Explained course material clearly and concisely. Retrieved from
http://ideaedu.org/

Titsworth, S. (n.d.). Translating research into instructional practice: Instructor clarity. Retrieved from http://www.natcom.org/

Weimer, M. E. (2013). Learner-centered teaching: Five key changes to practice (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Weimer, M. E. (2015, November 18). Are we clear? Tips for creating better explanations. Faculty Focus. Retrieved from http://www.facultyfocus.com/

Wieman, C. (2010). Basic instructor habits to keep students engaged. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/

Zull, J. E. (2002). The art of changing the brain: Enriching teaching by exploring the biology of learning. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

In this module, faculty learn how to use concept maps and a variety of visualization tools to assist students in understanding complex concepts, principles, and ideas and the important relationships between them.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as using a flowchart during a class session, asking students to use visual tools to answer questions, or teaching students to use concept maps to prepare for exams.

Advising Subject Matter Experts: Derek Bruff, Vanderbilt University, and Todd Zakrajsek, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M. C., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Brookfield, S. D. (2015). The skillful teacher: On technique, trust, and responsiveness in the classroom (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bruff, D. (2013, November 1). Show and tell: More visual presentations [Prezi slides]. Retrieved from https://prezi.com/

Bruff, D. (2015, March 16). Mapping a discussion with clickable image polls [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.polleverywhere.com/

Carnegie Mellon University, Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence & Educational Innovation. (n.d.). Using concept maps. Retrieved from https://www.cmu.edu/

Newbury, P. (2010, August). Concept mapping in Astro 101. Paper presented at Cosmos in the Classroom, Boulder, CO. Abstract retrieved from http://blogs.ubc.ca/

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Novak, J. D., & Cañas, A. J. (2008). The theory underlying concept maps and how to construct and use them. Retrieved from http://cmap.ihmc.us/

Ortega, R. A., & Brame, C. J. (2015). The synthesis map is a multidimensional educational tool that provides insight into students’ mental models and promotes students’ synthetic knowledge generation. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 14(2).

Wandersee, J. H. (2002). Using concept circle diagramming as a knowledge mapping tool. In K. M. Fisher, J. H. Wandersee, & D. E. Moody (Eds.), Science & Technology Education Library Series: Vol. 11. Mapping biology knowledge (pp. 109–126). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic.

In this module, faculty learn how to motivate students to take notes and effectively support note-taking by sharing pointers, providing skeletal outlines, allowing processing time, and using cues to signal important points.
To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as sharing research that supports the benefits of note-taking, teaching students how to take notes, or providing a skeletal outline.

Advising Subject Matter Expert: Linda Nilson, Clemson University (retired)

Bligh, D. A. (2000). What’s the use of lectures? San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Boye, A. (2012). Note-taking in the 21st century: Tips for instructors and students. Retrieved from https://www.depts.ttu.edu/

Broderick, B. (1990). Groundwork for college reading. West Berlin, NJ: Townsend Press.

Carrier, C. A. (1983). Notetaking research implications for the classroom. Journal of Instructional Development, 6(3), 19–26.

Cohen, D., Kim, E., Tan, J., & Winkelmes, M. (2013). A note-restructuring intervention increases students’ exam scores. College Teaching, 61, 95–99.

Cottrell, S. (2008). Palgrave study skills: The study skills handbook (3rd ed.). Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan.

DeZure, D., Kaplan, M., & Deerman, M. A. (2001). Research on student notetaking: Implications for faculty and graduate student instructors. Retrieved from http://www.math.lsa.umich.edu/

Heward, W. L. (n.d.). Guided notes: Improving the effectiveness of your lectures. Retrieved from
http://ada.osu.edu/

Huxham, M. (2010). The medium makes the message: Effects of cues on students’ lecture notes. Active Learning in Higher Education, 11, 179–188.

Intervention Central. (n.d.). Guided notes: Increasing student engagement during lecture and assigned readings. Retrieved from http://www.interventioncentral.org/

Johnstone, A. H., & Su, W. Y. (1994). Lectures—A learning experience? Education in Chemistry, 35, 76–79.

Kauffman, D. F., Zhao, R., & Yang, Y.-S. (2011). Effects of online note taking formats and
self-monitoring prompts on learning from online text: Using technology to enhance
self-regulated learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 313–322.

Kiewra, K. A. (1985). Providing the instructor’s notes: An effective addition to student notetaking. Educational Psychologist, 20, 33–39.

Kiewra, K. A. (2005). Learn how to study and SOAR to success. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Kiewra, K. A., DuBois, N., Christian, D., McShane, A., Meyerhoffer, M., & Roskelley, D. (1991).
Note-taking functions and techniques. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 240–245.

Langan, J. (2007). Reading and student skills (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Longman, D. G., & Atkinson, R. H. (1999). College learning and study skills. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Marsh, E. J., & Sink, H. E. (2010). Access to handouts of presentation slides during lecture: Consequences for learning. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 691–706.

McKeachie, W. J. (1994). McKeachie’s teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers (9th ed.). Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.

Medina, J. (2014). Brain rules: 12 principles for surviving and thriving at work, home, and school (Updated and expanded 2nd ed.). Seattle, WA: Pear Press.

Mueller, P. A., & Oppenheimer, D. M. (2014). The pen is mightier than the keyboard: Advantages of longhand over laptop note taking. Psychological Science, 25, 1159–1168.

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Peper, R. J., & Mayer, R. E. (1978). Note-taking as a generative activity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 514–522.

Potts, B. (1993). Improving the quality of student notes. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 3(8).

Rotenberg, R. L. (2010). The art & craft of college teaching: A guide for new professors & graduate students (2nd ed.). Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.

Stefanou, C., Hoffman, L., & Vielee, N. (2008). Note-taking in the college classroom as evidence of generative learning. Learning Environments Research, 11, 1–17.

Stutts, K. J., Beverly, M. M., & Kelley, S. F. (2013). Evaluation of note taking method on academic performance in undergraduate animal science courses. NACTA Journal, 57(3), 38–39.

University of Nebraska. (n.d.). Teaching students to take better notes: Notes on notetaking. Retrieved from http://www.unl.edu/

In this module, faculty learn how to plan a questioning strategy that prompts critical thinking. The module also helps instructors use advanced questioning techniques, like the Socratic Method, and activities for helping students develop their own questioning skills.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as using a taxonomy to appropriately scaffold questions, using the CLOSE-UP method, or assigning students a task that requires them to write their own questions.

Advising Subject Matter Expert: Stephen Brookfield, University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

Bloom, B. S., Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York, NY: McKay.

Brookfield, S. D., & Preskill, S. (2016). The discussion book: Fifty great ways to get people talking. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Elder, L., & Paul, R. (2009). The thinker’s guide to the art of asking essential questions (4th ed.). Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.

Lemons, P. P., & Lemons, J. D. (2013). Questions for assessing higher-order cognitive skills: It’s not just Bloom’s. CBE Life Sciences Education, 12, 47–58.

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (1997, April). Socratic teaching. Retrieved from http://www.criticalthinking.org/

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2006). The thinker’s guide to the art of Socratic Questioning (4th ed.). Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.

In this module, faculty learn how to assist students in understanding and taking ownership of their own learning process. Techniques include using cues to guide student learning, presenting and having students develop work plans for completing complex assignments, prompting self-reflection with rubrics or other grading guidelines, and making worked examples available.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as sharing examples of prior students’ work, using an exam wrapper, or having students complete the Critical Incident Questionnaire.

Advising Subject Matter Expert: Stephen Brookfield, University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

Abdullah, M. H. (2001). Self-directed learning (ERIC Digest No. D169). Bloomington, IN: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading, English, and Communication. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED459458)

Ackerman, D. S., & Gross, B. L. (2005). My instructor made me do it: Task characteristics of procrastination. Journal of Marketing Education, 27, 5–13.

Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., Lovett, M. C., DiPietro, M., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bowen, J. (2013, August 22). Cognitive wrappers: Using metacognition and reflection to improve learning [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://josebowen.com/

Brookfield, S. D. (2015). The skillful teacher: On technique, trust, and responsiveness in the classroom (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Carey, L. J., Flower, L., Hayes, J., Shriver, K.A., & Haas, C. (1989). Differences in writers’ initial task representations (Technical Report No. 34). Center for the Study of Writing at University of California at Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon University.

Connor, C. (2004). Developing self-directed learners. Retrieved from http://www.schoolnet.org.za/

Cornell University, Center for Teaching Excellence. (n.d.). What do students already know? Retrieved from http://www.cte.cornell.edu/

DeLong, M., & Winter, D. (2002). Learning to teaching and teaching to learn mathematics: Resources for professional development. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America.

Dweck, C. S. (2007). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.

Fayetteville State University. (n.d.). Create engaging assignments and clear assignment sheets. Retrieved from http://www.uncfsu.edu/

Harris, C. (2014, June 6). Teaching from the test: Exam wrappers [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.purdue.edu/

Shannon, S. V. (2008). Using metacognitive strategies and learning styles to create self-directed learners. Institute for Learning Styles Research Journal, 1, 14–28.

The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Walker Center for Teaching and Learning. (n.d.). Classroom assessment strategies. Retrieved from http://www.utc.edu/

Unit 5. Assessing to Inform Instruction and Promote Learning

In this module, faculty learn to implement research-based grading practices aligned to their grading philosophy and course content. In addition, the module includes information on setting grading policies for late assignments and extra credit and effectively communicating grading practices to students.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as sharing their grading policy with students, assigning different values to assignments based on learning opportunities, or offering extra credit for improved learning.

Advising Subject Matter Experts: Trudy Banta, Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis; Virginia Anderson, Towson University; and Linda Nilson, Clemson University (retired)

Banta, T. W. (2003). Portfolio assessment: Uses, cases, scoring, and impact. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.

Brookhart, S. M. (1999). The art and science of classroom assessment: The missing part of pedagogy. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, 27(1).

Davis, B. G. (1993). Tools for teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Davis, B. G. (2009). Tools for teaching (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Determining a grading system for your course. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.lcc.edu/

Dominowski, R. L. (2001). Teaching undergraduates. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gronlund, N. E., & Waugh, C. K. (2008). Assessment of student achievement (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Illinois State University, Center for Teaching, Learning, and Technology. (n.d.). Design your course: Module 9: Developing a grading system. Retrieved from http://ctlt.illinoisstate.edu/

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Nilson, L. B. (2014). Specifications grading: Restoring rigor, motivating students, and saving faculty time. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Nilson, L. B. (in press). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Packard, E. (2008). Proactive policies: Experts weigh in on the administrative side of classroom teaching. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/

Payne, D. A. (2003). Applied educational assessment (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson.

Shepard, L. A. (2006). Classroom assessment. In R. L. Brennan (Ed.), Educational measurement
(4th ed.). Westport, CT: American Council on Education.

Walvoord, B. E., & Anderson, V. J. (2009). Effective grading: A tool for learning and assessment in college (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Weimer, M., (2011, July 20). Revisiting extra credit policies [Blog post]. Faculty Focus. Retrieved from http://www.facultyfocus.com/

In this module, faculty learn how to select a grading tool that best aligns to the assigned task and offers the type of feedback most helpful to students. In addition, the module includes techniques for helping students understand how to use different grading tools to their benefit as well as techniques for helping instructors understand how they might use the data generated from grading tools to inform instruction.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as creating an assignment checklist, having students use a rubric to analyze sample papers, or analyzing rubric data.

Advising Subject Matter Experts: Dannelle Stevens, Portland State University; Phyllis Blumberg, University of the Sciences; R. Eric Landrum, Boise State University; and Linda Nilson, Clemson University (retired)

Allen, D., & Tanner, K. (2006). Rubrics: Tools for making learning goals and evaluation criteria explicit for both teachers and learners. CBE Life Sciences Education, 5, 197–203.

Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., Lovett, M. C., DiPietro, M., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Berkeley University of California. (n.d.). Helping students understand their grades. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://gsi.berkeley.edu/

Bresciani, M. J., Zelna, C. L., & Anderson J. A. (2004). Assessing student learning and development: A handbook for practitioners. Washington, DC: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators.

Davis, B. G. (2009). Tools for teaching (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Gooblar, D. (2014, October 8). Why I don’t like rubrics. Retrieved from https://chroniclevitae.com/

Jonsson, A., & Svingby, G. (2007). The use of scoring rubrics: Reliability, validity and educational consequences. Educational Research Review, 2, 130–144.

Luft, J. A. (1999). Rubrics: Design and use in science teacher education. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 10, 107–121.

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Panadero, E., & Jonsson, A. (2013). The use of scoring rubrics for formative assessment purposes: A review. Educational Research Review, 9, 129–144.

Reddy, Y. M., & Andrade, H. (2010). A review of rubric use in higher education. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35, 435–448.

Stevens, D. D., & Levi, A. J. (2013). Introduction to rubrics: An assessment tool to save grading time, convey effective feedback, and promote student learning (2nd ed.) Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Suskie, L. A. (2009). Assessing student learning: A common sense guide (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Svinicki, M. D., & McKeachie, W. J. (2014). McKeachie’s teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers (14th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Vanderbilt University, Center for Teaching. (n.d.). Grading student work. Retrieved from
https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/

Walvoord, B. E. F., & Anderson, V. J. (2010). Effective grading: A tool for learning and assessment (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

In this module, faculty learn how to offer students effective feedback. In addition, the module includes techniques to help students more effectively use feedback for improvement and to help instructors leverage technology to increase feedback efficiency.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as providing timely feedback, conducting structured peer review sessions, or distributing handouts that address common errors.

Advising Subject Matter Expert: Thomas Angelo, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Angelo, T. A. (2011). Efficient feedback for effective learning: How less can sometimes be more. Retrieved from http://planning.iupui.edu/

Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Barnes, M. (2012, December 18). De-grade your classroom and instead use narrative feedback [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://smartblogs.com/

Burnham, C. C. (1986). Portfolio evaluation: Room to breathe and grow. In C. W. Bridges (Ed.), Training the new teacher of college composition (pp. 125–138). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Columbia University Graduate School of Arts & Sciences Teaching Center. (n.d.). How to provide constructive feedback—That won’t exasperate your students. Retrieved from http://www.columbia.edu/

Dean, C. B., Hubbell, E. R., Pitler, H., & Stone, B. J. (2012). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Deslauriers, L., Schelew, E., & Wieman, C. (2011). Improved learning in a large-enrollment physics class. Science, 332, 862–864.

Friend, C. (2013, January 1). Grading, assessment, or feedback? [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://chrisfriend.us/

Goodwin, B., & Miller, K. (2012). Research says / Good feedback is targeted, specific, timely. Educational Leadership, 70(1), 82–83.

McKeachie, W. J., & Svinicki, M. (2006). McKeachie’s teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Myatt, M. (n.d.). Should I be marking every piece of work? [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://marymyatt.com/

Thaiss, C. (2015). Tools for giving efficient, effective feedback to student writing [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://cetlblog.ucdavis.edu/

Turner, W., & West, J. (2013). Assessment for “Digital First Language” speakers: Online video assessment and feedback in higher education. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 23, 288–296.

Twigg, C. A. (2015, November–December). Improving learning and reducing costs: Fifteen years of course description. Change. Retrieved from http://www.changemag.org/

University of Michigan, Sweetland Center for Writing. (n.d.). Using peer review to improve student writing. Retrieved from https://www.lsa.umich.edu/

Wiggins, G. (2012). Seven keys to effective feedback. Educational Leadership, 70(1), 10–16.

In this module, faculty learn how to effectively check for student understanding by using quality questioning techniques and whole-class formative assessment strategies including the One-Minute Paper, Muddiest Point, and In Your Own Words.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as calling on both volunteers and nonvolunteers, using wait time, asking students to clarify or expand on their responses, or implementing a classroom assessment technique.

Advising Subject Matter Experts: Elizabeth Barkley, Foothill College, and Thomas Angelo, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Barkley, E. F., & Major, C. H. (2016). Learning assessment techniques: A handbook for college faculty. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Black, P. (2003). The nature and value of formative assessment for learning. Improving Schools, 6(3), 7–22.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 5, 7–74.

Dailey, R. (2014, April 21). The sound of silence: The value of quiet contemplation in the classroom. Faculty Focus. Retrieved from http://www.facultyfocus.com/

Dallimore, E. J., Hertenstein, J. H., & Platt, M. B. (2013). Impact of cold-calling on student voluntary participation. Journal of Management Education, 37, 305–341.

Deslauriers, L., Schelew, E., & Wieman, C. (2011). Improved learning in a large-enrollment physics class. Science, 332, 862–864.

Earl, L. M. (2012). Assessment as learning: Using classroom assessment to maximize student learning. Thousand Parks, CA: Corwin Press.

Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2007). Checking for understanding: Formative assessment techniques for your classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Frese, M., & Keith, N. (2015). Action errors, error management, and learning in organizations. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 661–687.

Fusco, E. (2012). Effective questioning strategies in the classroom: A step-by-step approach to engaged thinking and learning, K–8. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Handelsman, M. M. (2013, November 26). The case of classroom cold calling: What do you think? Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/

Howard, J. R. (2015). Discussion in the college classroom: Getting your students engaged and participating in person and online. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Ingram, J., & Elliott, V. (2016). A critical analysis of the role of wait time in classroom interactions and the effects on student and teacher interactional behaviours. Cambridge Journal of Education, 46, 1–17.

Knight, J. (2013). High-impact instruction: A framework for great teaching. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Krause, S. J., Baker, D. R., Carberry, A. R., Koretsky, M., Brooks, B. J., Gilbuena, D., . . . Ankeny, C. J. (2013, June). Muddiest point formative feedback in core materials classes with YouTube, Blackboard, class warm-ups and word clouds. Paper presented at the 120th American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, Atlanta, GA. Retrieved from https://www.asee.org/

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Wieman, C. (2010). Basic instructor habits to keep students engaged. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/

Wieman, C. (2016). Observation guide for active-learning classroom. Retrieved from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia website: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/

In this module, faculty learn how to use patterns of student achievement on key assignments and assessments to inform instruction. In addition, the module provides techniques to secure mid- and end-of-semester feedback from students and techniques to use colleague observations and consultations with faculty development specialists to inform improvements in instruction.

To satisfy module requirements, practicing faculty must apply at least one technique, such as creating a data analysis insights chart, securing midsemester feedback, or documenting teaching practices in a journal.

Advising Subject Matter Experts: José Bowen, Goucher College, and Trudy Banta, Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis

Angelo, T. A., & Cross, P. K. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Benton, S. L., & Cashin, W. E. (2014). Student ratings of teaching: A summary of research and literature (Idea Paper No. 50). Retrieved from http://ideaedu.org/

Cashin, W. E. (1995). Student ratings of teaching: The research revisited (Idea Paper No. 32). Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/

Christensen, C. R., Garvin, D. A., & Sweet, A. (Eds.). (1991). Education for judgment: The artistry of discussion leadership. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Davis, B. G. (2009). Tools for teaching (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Farmer, D. W., & Napieralski, E. A. (1997). Assessing learning in programs. In J. G. Gaff & J. L. Ratcliff (Eds.), Handbook of the undergraduate curriculum: A comprehensive guide to purposes, structures, practices, and change (pp. 591–607). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Felder, R. M. (1992). What do they know, anyway? Chemical Engineering Education, 26, 134–135.

Gravestock, P., & Gregor-Greenleaf, E. (2008). Student course evaluations: Research, models and trends. Toronto, ON, Canada: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.heqco.ca/

Nilson, L. B. (2010). Teaching at its best: A research-based resource for college instructors (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Rojstaczer, S. (2012, September 18). Student evaluations offer bad data that leads to the wrong answer. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

Seldin, P. (1997). Using student feedback to improve teaching. In D. DeZure (Ed.), To improve the academy (Vol. 16, pp. 335–346). Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press and the Professional and Organizational Development Network in Higher Education.

Svinicki, M. D., & McKeachie, W. J. (2010). McKeachie’s teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers (13th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Theall, M. (n.d.). Student ratings: Myths vs. research evidence. Retrieved from https://studentratings.byu.edu/

University of Michigan, Center for Research on Learning and Teaching. (n.d.). Improving your teaching: Obtaining feedback. Retrieved from http://www.crlt.umich.edu/

University of Northern Iowa. (n.d.). Small-group instructional diagnosis. Retrieved from
http://www.uni.edu/

The University of Sydney, Institute for Teaching and Learning. (n.d.). Gathering and acting on feedback. Retrieved from http://www.itl.usyd.edu.au/

Using student evaluations to improve teaching. (1997). Speaking of Teaching: Stanford University Newsletter on Teaching, 9(1).